Account - A space set aside for users of a particular
host computer. Account holders are assigned a login and
pasword that they must use in order to access their account
on the system.
Address - A unique name or number identifying a computer
user or computer. Specific examples would be an IP Address
(e.g. 123.456.789.10, to identify a computer) or an email
address (e.g. firstname.lastname@example.org, to identify a user on
Archie - A database and related programs giving the
user information about the contents of various archives.
ASCII - A standard method for encoding characters
-- text files are usually ASCII files. ASCII has codes representing
upper- and lowercase letters, the punctuation, and numerals.
ASCII is an acronym for American Standard Code for Information
Backbone - A high-speed connection within a network
that connects shorter (usually slower) branch circuits.
Bandwidth - A measure of capacity and speed of the
links between computing devices. Measured in kilobits per
second (Kbps), megabits per second (Mbps), or gigabits per
Binary File - All files that are not text files are
considered binary files. Any combination of bits is possible
with a binary file.
- Software used to access the World Wide Web. For example,
Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer.
Client - A program running on a computer that requests
services from a server, which usually runs on a remote computer.
Email programs are one example of a client.
Access - The ability to use a computer and modem to
access another computer or network via a phone line.
Directory - Files on many computer systems are grouped
together in directories (sometimes referred to as folders).
Directory Service - A service on a network giving
information about sites, computers, resources, or users
in the area.
Name - Mapped to a particular numeric address. This takes the place
of having to use an IP address number. Also,
the name hierarchy on the Internet. Consists of a sequence of names
separated by periods. Common extensions include: .com (commercial),
.edu (education), .gov (government), and .org (organizations). Countries
usually have their own extensions. For example, .ca (Canada) and .uk
- To copy data from a remote computer into your local computer.
.edu - The standard highest-level domain name used
to identify educational institution sites.
Discussion Group - Computerized discussion group, dealing with a
specific topic, that allows subscribers to discuss issues and exchange
(Electronic Mail) - A computer and network based messaging system
that exchanges mail electronically.
Server - Centrally located computer that acts as a storehouse of
data and applications for users of a LAN (Local Area Network)
(File Transfer Protocol) - Protocol which allows transfer of files from
one computer to another.
Client - Internet application that allows access to
a remote computer over the Internet either anonymously or
using an ID and password in order to copy files between
the remote computer and a local computer.
FYI - For Your Information. Usually a comments page
or file that is of a general informational nature.
Gateway - A computer that connects twonetworkings,
often converting protocols or messages from one network
to the other.
Gopher - Client/server software providing flexible
access to Internet resources.
Page - Web page that is displayed when your browser
Host - A computer system on which you can hold an
interactive session, or which is the source of network services.
HTML - HyperText Markup Language. The coding language
used to create World Wide Web pages.
HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol. The client/server
protocol upon which the World Wide Web is based.
Internet - The international network of networks
based on the TCP/IP protocol. Also, with a small "i",
the interconnection of two or more networks.
(Internet Protocol) - operates at the network layer
and breaks messages into packets and provides addresses
for each packet.
Address - Unique Internet number that indicates a specific
ListServ/Listserver - software providing the capability
to mass-distribute email messages to mailing list subscribers.
Login - An opening procedure to identify yourself
to a system as a legitimate user and begin a session. Normally,
to login you need a valid username and password. The term
"logon" is also used.
Logout - A closing procedure to formally end a session
with a system. Breaking a network connection will not necessarily
result in loggin you out. The word "logoff" is
MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. Extensions
to the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to allow the
transmittal of nontext information (graphics, etc.) via
Node - A single computer within a network.
PINE - An email program that provides a user-friendly
interface for Internet mail users in a UNIX environment.
POP - Post Office Protocol. A protocol that allows
client/server email access.
PPP - Point-to-Point Protocol, used for connecting
to most modern ISPs.
Protocol - Specific rules defining one part of the
transmission and receipt of information across a data communications
between entities, including type, size, and format of data
RFC - Request For Comments. The documents that contain
the standards and other information for the TCP/IP protocols
and the Internet in general. They are available at several
sites through anonymous FTP.
Routing - Finding an effective or efficient path
through a network to a destination computer. Routing is
almost always handled by the network or communication software.
Engines - Website interface that finds Web sites through key word
searches. Popular examples are Yahoo,
Lycos, and Metacrawler.
- A computer directly connected to the Internet that is
dedicated to serving data.
Shareware - Software that is free to download, but
must be paid for after the trial period is over.
SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol. An Internet protocol
that allows for computers with high-speed modems to establish
a virtual direct link to an Internet node. Most modern ISPs
use the PPP protocol.
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The Internet standard
protocol for transferring email.
T1, T3 - Standards that represent 1.544 megabits
(T1) and 45megabits (T3) per second transmission speeds
in data communications.
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
- TCP - is responsible for end-to-end message delivery.
- Text-based method for accessing a remote computer.
UNIX - An operating system available for a wide range
of computers. Originally developed at AT&T Bell Labs.
Ultrix, Solaris, and Linux are among its descendants. Used
on many servers for its stability.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - Address of a file
accessible on the WWW, i.e. an HTML web page, an image file,
or a Java applet. Example: http://www.rpa.net
is our URL.
Newgroups - Public forums that contain articles posted
by individual readers.
Username/UserID - Address representing a personal
account on a system.
Veronica - A Gopher service that provides keyword
searching of gopher menu items.